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Tschechien (tschechisch Česko, amtlich Tschechische Republik, tschechisch Česká republika Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel hören) ist ein Binnenstaat in. Tschechische Republik: Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise Tschechien. Stand - (Unverändert gültig seit: ). Letzte. Einreise nach Tschechien aus Ländern der grünen Kategorie. Die Einreise ist für alle EU -Staatsangehörige und Ausländer mit nachgewiesenem Aufenthalt in. Kurzdaten. Hauptstadt, Prag. Staatsform, Parlamentarische Demokratie. Währung, Tschechische Krone (CZK). Fläche, km². Bevölkerung, 10,5 Mio​. Die Tschechische Republik hat die bisherigen Reiseeinschränkungen für viele EU-Länder gelockert. Endlich können Sie Ihren Urlaub in Tschechien planen!

Tschenien

Tschechische Republik: Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise Tschechien. Stand - (Unverändert gültig seit: ). Letzte. Zehn Ideen für einen Themenurlaub im UNESCO-Land Tschechien - Heilende Bäder, jahrhundertealte Schlösser und einzigartige Naturlandschaften Whether. Flag Tschechische Republik Tschechische Republik (Tschechische Republik). Stand (Unverändert gültig seit: ). Czech Republic portal. Die 14 this web page selbstverwaltenden Gebietseinheiten wurden durch das Verfassungsgesetz zum 1. Archived from the original on 25 September Most Lomnice nad Popelkou okr. Sokolov Chomutov okr. Main article: Internet in the Czech Republic. The Prague Post. Archived from the original PDF on 5 June In Tschechien gibt es vier Nationalparks. A long history of resistance to the Catholic See more followed.

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Die russische Kampfmoral war von Anfang an gering, die tschetschenischen Kräfte erhielten massive Unterstützung aus dem Ausland, besonders aus der islamischen Welt, und wechselten zur Guerillakriegsführung.

Die Kampfhandlungen dehnten sich auf angrenzende Regionen aus, so etwa wie im Falle der Geiselnahme von Budjonnowsk.

Im August gelang es den Tschetschenen, Grosny zurückzuerobern. Die russische Armee verlor dabei mehrere hundert Soldaten und erlitt eine dramatische und demütigende Niederlage.

Daraufhin schloss Russland, vertreten durch General Alexander Lebed , einen Friedensvertrag mit Tschetschenien und zog sich zurück.

Der Vertrag bestätigte zwar die Eigenstaatlichkeit des Landes nicht, akzeptierte aber de facto die Regierung der Rebellen als Verhandlungspartner und sah weitere Gespräche mit ihnen vor.

Der Krieg hatte auch auf tschetschenischer Seite viele Opfer gefordert und die wirtschaftliche Lage war nun noch prekärer als zuvor. Dies führte zur Radikalisierung weiter Teile der tschetschenischen Gesellschaft und Führung.

Der saudische Wahhabismus hatte ebenso wie dschihadistische Ideen Einzug gehalten. Zwischen und wurde die Scharia in Tschetschenien eingeführt; mit der folgenden Law-and-Order-Politik wurden andere Kultureinflüsse verboten und bereits für kleine Delikte die Todesstrafe verhängt.

Mit dem Einmarsch russischer Truppen im Zweiten Tschetschenienkrieg wurde die Existenz des unabhängigen Staates beendet.

Die heute noch aktive Rebellenbewegung in Tschetschenien hält allerdings noch an dem Terminus Tschetschenische Republik Itschkerien fest — im Gegensatz zur von Moskau gestützten Regierung von Ramsan Kadyrow.

Der nominelle Präsident der Gegenregierung war bis zum Juni Scheich Abdul Halim Sadulajew. Er wurde von russischen Truppen während einer antiterroristischen Operation in seiner Heimatstadt Argun getötet.

September in der Folge einer Lebensmittelvergiftung starb. Er behauptete sich jedoch nicht gegen die immer stärker werdenden radikalen Gruppierungen, die von eingeströmten ausländischen, zumeist arabischen Kriegsherren ideologisch inspiriert, finanziert und teilweise angeführt wurden.

Mai hatte eine wahhabitische Gruppe versucht, das Dagestaner Regierungsgebäude zu stürmen. Ein Terroranschlag in Machatschkala , der Hauptstadt der benachbarten russischen Republik Dagestan, am 4.

Es kam zu schweren Gefechten mit der russischen Armee. Bis Ende September wurden die tschetschenischen Einheiten aus Dagestan vertrieben.

Sowohl vor als auch nach dem Einfall in Dagestan hatte es andere Terroranschläge auf russischem Gebiet gegeben, insbesondere in Wolgodonsk und Moskau.

Die russische Regierung machte tschetschenische Separatisten für die Taten verantwortlich; die Tschetschenen bestritten das jedoch, die endgültige Schuldfrage ist bis heute unklar.

Im Gegensatz zu seinem Vorgänger gelang es Putin, die Kämpfe schnell zu beenden und Tschetschenien vollständig unter russische Kontrolle zu bringen.

Die Region erhielt nun wieder den Status einer autonomen Republik innerhalb Russlands. Es folgte eine von Terroranschlägen, Gewalt und Menschenrechtsverletzungen geprägte Zeit.

Bei der umstrittenen Befreiungsaktion durch Spezialeinheiten unter Einsatz von Betäubungsgas kamen 41 Terroristen sowie Geiseln ums Leben.

Bei den Präsidentschaftswahlen am 5. Kadyrow, eine ehemalige Schlüsselfigur der Unabhängigkeitsbewegung, hatte zuvor die Seiten gewechselt.

Die Wahl wurde von einigen westlichen Politikern und vom bisherigen von Russland nicht anerkannten Präsidenten Maschadow als Farce bezeichnet.

Maschadow tauchte in den Untergrund ab und rief zum weiteren Kampf gegen die neue Regierung und gegen Russland auf.

Ein Bombenanschlag auf das tschetschenische Regierungsgebäude in Grosny am Dezember forderte 72 Todesopfer.

Bei einer Volksbefragung in Tschetschenien am März stimmten laut offiziellem Ergebnis 95,5 Prozent der Bevölkerung für den Verbleib in der Russischen Föderation.

Nach diesem Referendum erhielt die Republik durchgehend ein föderales Budget zur Finanzierung des Wiederaufbaus. Mai wurde Präsident Kadyrow bei einem Bombenanschlag getötet.

Im Juni erklärte der im Untergrund lebende Maschadow in einem Radiointerview, die Tschetschenen seien dabei, ihre Taktik zu ändern.

Juni drangen nach Augenzeugenberichten etwa bis schwer bewaffnete Kämpfer aus Tschetschenien in die Nachbarrepublik Inguschetien ein und umstellten mehrere Polizeistationen und eine Kaserne von Grenzsoldaten.

Im August sprengten zwei vermutlich tschetschenische Selbstmordattentäterinnen zwei russische Tupolew-Passagiermaschinen und töteten etwa 90 Menschen.

Nach erfolglosen Verhandlungen wurde die Schule unter umstrittenen Umständen von der russischen Armee gestürmt. Dabei kamen mehr als Geiseln ums Leben.

Die Verantwortung für beide Terroranschläge übernahm später der Anführer der tschetschenischen Freischärler, Schamil Bassajew vgl.

Geiselnahme von Beslan. März wurde Maschadow bei einer Spezialoperation des FSB in der Ortschaft Tolstoi-Jurt getötet, nachdem er angeblich erst eine Woche zuvor erneut Gesprächsbereitschaft zugesagt hatte.

Seit dem 1. April wurde er vereidigt. Anfang wurde seine Amtszeit um weitere vier Jahre verlängert. In der Tschetschenischen Republik ist es im sozioökonomischen Bereich in den letzten Jahren zu starken Verbesserungen gekommen, auch die Gewalt hat merklich abgenommen.

Dennoch besteht im Vergleich zu anderen russischen Regionen nach wie vor Aufholbedarf. Ramsan Kadyrow regiert Tschetschenien seitdem autokratisch , ihm werden schwere Menschenrechtsverletzungen vorgeworfen.

Die Reichweite seiner Machtbefugnisse ist so weit gegangen, dass er selbst die Autorität der direkt Moskau unterstellten Sicherheitsorgane in Tschetschenien nicht mehr anerkennt und seine damit verbundene Unzufriedenheit offen zum Ausdruck bringt.

So etwa kritisierte Kadyrow einen Anti-Terror-Einsatz des russischen Innenministeriums, mit dem er die Macht in Tschetschenien nicht teilen will, in Grosny im Jahr Opfer von Kampfhandlungen und Terroranschlägen wurden mindestens 50 Menschen, wovon 34 starben und 16 verletzt wurden [24].

Im Mai wurde in der tschetschenischen Hauptstadt Grosny eine orthodoxe Kirche angegriffen.

Im zweiten Wahlgang genügt eine relative Mehrheit. Die Regierung ist das höchste Organ der Exekutive und besteht aus dem Ministerpräsidenten und den Ministern.

Der Ministerpräsident wird vom Präsidenten der Republik ernannt. Nach seinem Vorschlag ernennt der Präsident daraufhin auch die weiteren Regierungsmitglieder.

Die Regierung muss sich danach einer Vertrauensabstimmung im Parlament unterziehen. In der Hierarchie folgen der Regierung und deren zentralen Behörden die Selbstverwaltungsgebietseinheiten.

Höhere selbstverwaltende Gebietseinheiten sind die 14 Regionen kraj , elementare selbstverwaltende Gebietseinheiten sind die Gemeinden.

Die Judikative besteht aus dem Verfassungsgericht und einem vierstufigen System allgemeiner Gerichte. Im Demokratieindex belegt Tschechien Platz 32 von Ländern.

Platz, mit 55 von maximal Punkten. Tschechisch als Amtssprache ergibt sich erst aus einzelnen Gesetzen für konkrete Bereiche.

Ausgehend aus dem Art. Der Art. Die 14 höheren selbstverwaltenden Gebietseinheiten wurden durch das Verfassungsgesetz zum 1.

Januar errichtet. Oberster Befehlshaber ist der Staatspräsident. Tschechien verfügt aktuell etwa über Das Land hat derzeit Kampfpanzer.

Die Luftstreitkräfte verfügen über 44 Kampfflugzeuge. Tschechien gab knapp 1,1 Prozent seiner Wirtschaftsleistung oder 2,2 Milliarden Dollar für seine Streitkräfte aus.

Dies bedeutete Platz 16 hinter Malta und vor Zypern. Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt pro Kopf betrug im selben Jahr Das Land gehört damit zu den europäischen Ländern mit den höchsten Reserven.

Der Heller wird jedoch seit der Abschaffung der Heller-Münze zum 1. September nicht mehr im Bargeldzahlungsverkehr verwendet. Die böhmischen Länder waren ein Zentrum der Industrialisierung der Habsburgermonarchie.

Die ersten Nachkriegsprodukte waren Lokomotiven. Auch die Wirtschaft der Tschechoslowakei gehörte traditionell zu den am meisten entwickelten in Europa.

Sie erreichte insbesondere in der Zeit von bis einen hohen Stand. Nach der Machtübernahme durch die Kommunisten gehörte die Tschechoslowakei zwar zu den meistentwickelten Ländern des Ostblocks , infolge der Übernahme der Zentralverwaltungswirtschaft als die herrschende Wirtschaftsform und infolge der aufgezwungenen Ausrichtung auf die Bedürfnisse des RGW konnte sie sich mindestens seit Mitte der er nicht so stark entwickeln, um an der Weltspitze zu bleiben.

Nach der Samtenen Revolution Ende wurde die Wirtschaft des Landes privatisiert und erfreute sich, nach einer kurzen anfänglichen Rezession, erneut einer schnellen positiven Entwicklung.

Das Gros des Bruttoinlandsproduktes wird im Dienstleistungssektor erzeugt. Euro einen neuen Rekordwert erreicht. Der bilaterale Handel mit Deutschland hatte ein Volumen von rund 81,6 Mrd.

Euro, auch dies ein neuer Höchststand. Tschechien liegt noch vor Russland an Stelle der deutschen Handelspartner. China oder Indien.

Tschechien ist für seine Exportwirtschaft noch sehr stark auf ausländische Unternehmen angewiesen die dort investieren und produzieren lassen.

Weitere wichtige Bereiche: die Metallurgie, Maschinen-, Lebensmittel- und Holzindustrie, ferner die chemische, petrochemische und pharmazeutische Industrie, Glas- und Keramikerzeugung.

In Böhmen hat die Glasindustrie Tradition. Viele der Glashütten können besichtigt werden, allerdings ist die Glasindustrie heute nur noch von geringer wirtschaftlicher Bedeutung.

Die Tschechische Republik führt jährlich rund 20 Prozent ihrer Stromproduktion aus. Die Stromproduktion aus Kohle solle schrittweise reduziert, und Neubaupläne für Atomkraftwerke verschoben oder verworfen werden.

Die tschechischen Beckenlandschaften sind sehr fruchtbar. Besonders wichtig ist die Hopfenproduktion, vor allem im Saazer Becken, als Grundlage der tschechischen Braukultur.

Böhmen ist ein traditionelles Bierbrauerland, in Südmähren wird hingegen Wein angebaut. Hauptgrund dafür ist das Genossenschaftswesen und die erzwungene Kollektivierung in den er Jahren.

Die Tourismuseinnahmen beliefen sich im selben Jahr auf 6,3 Mrd. Wichtigstes Touristenziel in Tschechien ist die Hauptstadt Prag.

Der Kohleabbau verliert kontinuierlich an Bedeutung, er ging in den letzten 25 Jahren um gut die Hälfte zurück. Der Staatshaushalt umfasste Ausgaben von umgerechnet 74,7 Mrd.

US-Dollar , dem standen Einnahmen von umgerechnet 73,7 Mrd. US-Dollar gegenüber. Das Land verfügt über eine gute Verkehrsanbindung an seine Nachbarstaaten.

Im Logistics Performance Index , der von der Weltbank erstellt wird und die Qualität der Infrastruktur misst, belegte Tschechien den Platz unter Ländern.

Der Bau des tschechischen Autobahnnetzes reicht bis zum Jahr zurück. Während bis weitgehend nur die Strecken Prag—Brünn und Brünn—Pressburg fertiggestellt wurden, wurde das Netz in den folgenden Jahren stetig ausgebaut.

Beide Strecken wurden mit Ausnahme eines kleinen Teilstückes auf der D8 fertiggestellt. Diese und andere Bauarbeiten werden jedoch durch zahlreiche Einwände erheblich verzögert.

Unterhalb des Autobahnnetzes existiert ein über Autofahrer sind verpflichtet, eine Autobahnvignette zu kaufen, die von innen an die Windschutzscheibe geklebt werden muss.

Der Schienenverkehr in Tschechien hat eine jährige Tradition. Beim Stand von ist das Streckennetz mit 9. Bedingt durch die Lage in Mitteleuropa, ist die Tschechische Republik zu einem wichtigen Transitland geworden.

Durch das Staatsgebiet führen verschiedene EuroCity -Korridore z. Die meisten Strecken werden im Halbstunden-, Stunden- oder Zweistundentakt befahren.

Seit verkehrt der Railjet von Prag nach Wien und Graz. Teilweise ist auch ein fünfter Korridor im Gespräch, der über die Bahnstrecke Praha—Turnov und von Turnov weiter nach Liberec führen soll.

Die meisten Hauptstädte der Regionen können über Sportflugplätze angeflogen werden. Insgesamt gibt es in Tschechien 91 zivile Flugplätze.

In Tschechien ist der Wasserverkehr auf den Flüssen Elbe und Moldau und auf geschlossenen Wasserflächen Stauseen und Seen , die für die Schifffahrt geeignet sind, nur zum Teil erschlossen.

Dieses In kleineren Städten fahren nur Busse beziehungsweise O-Busse. Die Preise der Fahrkarten sind in den einzelnen Städten unterschiedlich; Senioren fahren überall kostenlos.

Fahrkarten werden an Schaltern, Automaten und teilweise in den Fahrzeugen selbst angeboten. Beim Betreten der Verkehrsmittel müssen die Tickets in der Regel sofort entwertet werden.

Eine Anzahl europäischer Radwege durchquert Tschechien. Viele Radwege führen durch hügeliges Terrain, wie etwa die vielen Routen im Böhmerwald, die weiter in den Bayerischen Wald führen.

Fahrradfahren ist in Tschechien weit verbreitet, in den letzten Jahren wurde daher intensiv an einem nationalen Radnetz gearbeitet.

Eine landesweit einheitliche Ausschilderung mit gelben Radweg-Schildern und nummerierten Radwegen ist Fahrradtouristen sehr hilfreich.

Bei der Rangliste der Pressefreiheit , welche von Reporter ohne Grenzen herausgegeben wird, belegte Tschechien Platz 23 von Ländern.

Über insgesamt 3. Das tschechische Postleitzahlensystem besteht in seiner heutigen Form seit Das Schulwesen ist in Tschechien dreistufig organisiert.

Nach der fünften oder siebten Klasse kann jedoch nach einer Aufnahmeprüfung in ein acht- beziehungsweise sechsjähriges Gymnasium gewechselt werden.

Daneben gibt es das vierjährige Oberstufengymnasium. Das Gymnasium wird mit der Matura maturita abgeschlossen, die zum Hochschulstudium berechtigt.

Die Hochschulbildung gliedert sich in die drei Stufen Bakkalaureat , Master - bzw. Magisterstudium und Doktorat.

Die älteste und mit Hier sind architektonisch bedeutsame Bauten aus den verschiedenen Epochen der europäischen Kulturgeschichte vereint.

Die Stadtplätze von Slavonice oder Prachatice sind von diesem Stil geprägt. Dem Historismus ist die Generation des Nationaltheaters zuzuordnen.

Diese spezifische Richtung entwickelte sich zu einer Art Nationalarchitektur und brachte die Sonderform des Rondokubismus hervor.

Sie wurde in den er Jahren jedoch von der funktionalistischen Architektur abgelöst. Mit der Architektur der kommunistischen Zeit werden oft Plattenbauten assoziiert, sie ist umstritten.

Das bekannteste Bauwerk der Zeit nach ist das Tanzende Haus. Das älteste erhaltene romanische Fresko befindet sich in der Znaimer Katharinenrotunde.

Unter Karl IV. Jahrhunderts werden deshalb als böhmische Malerschule bezeichnet. Peter Parler wirkte zu dieser Zeit als Bildhauer und Dombaumeister.

Alfons Mucha ist ein weltbekannter Vertreter des Jugendstils, der hauptsächlich für seine charakteristische Plakatkunst , aber auch für das Monumentalwerk Das Slawische Epos mit Szenen aus der slawischen Geschichte berühmt ist.

Otto Gutfreund schuf kubistische Plastiken. Daraus entwickelte sich die alttschechische Sprache, die im Mittelalter neben Latein und Deutsch zur Literatursprache in Böhmen und Mähren aufstieg.

Die ersten Belege für alttschechische Literatur stammen aus dem Jan Hus führte die diakritischen Zeichen in der tschechischen Sprache ein.

Die Kralitzer Bibelübersetzung aus dem Ende des Die tschechische Moderne greift die zahlreichen literarischen Strömungen auf, die um die Jahrhundertwende in Europa entstehen.

Die Entstehung der Tschechoslowakei belebte den Kulturbetrieb enorm. Seit ist die freie Literaturproduktion wieder möglich. Das älteste musikalische Dokument auf tschechischem Gebiet ist das geistliche Lied Hospodine, pomiluj ny Herr, erbarme dich , das in die Wende vom Jahrhundert datiert.

Der alttschechische St. Jahrhundert ruft den heiligen Wenzel als Fürsprecher an und fungierte bis ins Jahrhundert als Nationalhymne.

Die zwei weltbekannten tschechischen Komponisten lebten beide im Von internationaler Bedeutung ist das jährliche klassische Musikfestival Prager Frühling.

Der Filmsektor ist in Tschechien stark entwickelt. Alljährlich findet das Internationale Filmfestival Karlovy Vary statt.

Die Küche in Böhmen und Mähren gilt als deftig und reichhaltig. Einen wichtigen Stellenwert haben die böhmischen Mehlspeisen , die auch in die österreichische Küche Eingang gefunden haben.

Bier gilt als Nationalgetränk. Tatsächlich ist der Bierkonsum in Tschechien weltweit am höchsten, das Bierbrauen hat eine jahrhundertealte Tradition.

Weltweit bekannte Marken sind Pilsner Urquell und Budweiser. Besonders in Mähren wird auch Weinbau betrieben. Bekannte Spirituosen sind Sliwowitz und Becherovka.

In Tschechien sind mehrere historische Gedenktage zu staatlichen Feiertagen erklärt worden. September, der Tag der Entstehung des tschechoslowakischen Staates am Oktober und der Tag des Kampfes für Freiheit und Demokratie am Bis auf den Karfreitag, den Ostermontag und die Weihnachtsfeiertage Dezember sind die christlichen Feiertage in Tschechien nicht arbeitsfrei.

The Czech judiciary has a triumvirate of supreme courts. The Constitutional Court consists of 15 constitutional judges and oversees violations of the Constitution by either the legislature or by the government.

The Supreme Court is formed of 67 judges and is the court of highest appeal for almost all legal cases heard in the Czech Republic.

The Supreme Administrative Court decides on issues of procedural and administrative propriety. It also has jurisdiction over many political matters, such as the formation and closure of political parties, jurisdictional boundaries between government entities, and the eligibility of persons to stand for public office.

The Czech Republic ranks as the 11th safest or most peaceful country. The Czech passport is one of the least restricted by visas. The Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs have primary roles in setting foreign policy, although the President has considerable influence and also represents the country abroad.

Czech officials have supported dissenters in Belarus , Moldova , Myanmar and Cuba. The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence.

The President of the Czech Republic is Commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In the army transformed itself into a fully professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished.

Defence spending is approximately 1. Since , the Czech Republic has been divided into thirteen regions Czech : kraje , singular kraj and the capital city of Prague.

In Prague, the assembly and presidential powers are executed by the city council and the mayor. The older seventy-six districts okresy , singular okres including three "statutory cities" without Prague, which had special status lost most of their importance in in an administrative reform; they remain as territorial divisions and seats of various branches of state administration.

The Czech Republic has a developed , [83] high-income [84] export-oriented social market economy based in services, manufacturing and innovation, that maintains a welfare state and the European social model.

Monetary policy is conducted by the Czech National Bank , whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution.

Dividends worth CZK billion were paid to the foreign owners of Czech companies in , which has become a political issue in the Czech Republic.

Production of Czech electricity exceeds consumption by about 10 TWh per year, which are exported. Nuclear power presently provides about 30 percent of the total power needs, its share is projected to increase to 40 percent.

In , The Czech Republic is reducing its dependence on highly polluting low-grade brown coal as a source of energy.

Natural gas is procured from Russian Gazprom , roughly three-fourths of domestic consumption and from Norwegian companies, which make up most of the remaining one-fourth.

Russian gas is imported via Ukraine, Norwegian gas is transported through Germany. Gas consumption approx. South Moravia has small oil and gas deposits.

In , it handled 15 million passengers, which makes it the one of the busiest airports in Central Europe. Russia, via pipelines through Ukraine and to a lesser extent, Norway, via pipelines through Germany, supply the Czech Republic with liquid and natural gas.

The Czech Republic ranks in the top 10 countries worldwide with the fastest average internet speed. The Czech lands have a long and rich scientific tradition.

The research based on cooperation between universities , Academy of Sciences and specialized research centers brings new inventions and impulses in this area.

Important contributions include the modern contact lens , the separation of blood types , the basic theory of genetics, many advances in nanotechnologies and the production of Semtex plastic explosive.

Cyril and Methodius laid the foundations of education and the Czech theological thinking in the 9th century. Original theological and philosophical stream — Hussitism — originated in the Middle Ages.

At the end of the Middle Ages, Jan Amos Comenius substantially contributed to the development of modern pedagogy. Jewish philosophy in the Czech lands was represented mainly by Judah Loew ben Bezalel known for the legend of the Golem of Prague.

Bernard Bolzano was the personality of German-speaking philosophy in the Czech lands. He also started the struggle for rescuing the Czech language.

This culminated in the Czech national revival in the first half of the 19th century. He wrote the first synthetic history of the Czech nation.

He was also the first Czech modern politician and geopolitician see also Austro-Slavism. He is often called "The Father of the Nation".

In the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century there was a huge development of social sciences.

Alois Musil was a prominent orientalist, Emil Holub ethnographer. Lubor Niederle was a founder of modern Czech archeology. Sigmund Freud established psychoanalysis.

Edmund Husserl defined a new philosophical doctrine — phenomenology. Joseph Schumpeter brought genuine economic ideas of "creative destruction" of capitalism.

Hans Kelsen was significant legal theorist. Karl Kautsky influenced the history of Marxism. On the contrary, economist Eugen Böhm von Bawerk led a campaign against Marxism.

Max Wertheimer was one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology. Musicologists Eduard Hanslick and Guido Adler influenced debates on the development of classical music in Vienna.

The new Czechoslovak republic — wanted to develop sciences. Philosopher Herbert Feigl was a member of the Vienna Circle. In the second half of the 20th century can be mentioned philosopher Ernest Gellner who is considered one of the leading theoreticians on the issue of nationalism.

Also Czech historian Miroslav Hroch analyzed modern nationalism. Egon Bondy was a major philosophical spokesman of the Czech underground in the s and s.

Czech Egyptology has scored some successes, its main representative is Miroslav Verner. Czech psychologist Stanislav Grof developed a method of "Holotropic Breathwork".

Experimental archaeologist Pavel Pavel made several attempts, they had to answer the question how ancient civilizations transported heavy weights.

A number of other scientists are also connected in some way with the Czech lands. The Czech economy gets a substantial income from tourism.

The low crime rate makes most cities and towns very safe to walk around. The territory was formerly the site of steel production, but now it hosts a technical museum with many interactive expositions for tourists.

All of them are in the cultural category. As of [update] , further 18 sites are on the tentative list.

There are several centres of tourist activity. There are 12 cathedrals and 15 churches elevated to the rank of basilica by the Pope, calm monasteries, many modern and ancient churches — for example Pilgrimage Church of Saint John of Nepomuk is one of those inscribed on the World Heritage List.

The country is also known for its various museums. Puppetry and marionette exhibitions are very popular, with a number of puppet festivals throughout the country.

The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated at 1. About 77, people immigrate to the Czech Republic annually.

According to preliminary results of the census, the majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czechs As the 'nationality' was an optional item, a substantial number of people left this field blank There were , 4.

Most of the foreign population lives in Prague The Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia, , according to the census, was virtually annihilated by the Nazi Germans during the Holocaust.

At the turn of the 20th century, Chicago was the city with the third largest Czech population, [] after Prague and Vienna.

Christianization in the 9th and 10th centuries introduced Catholicism. Taborites and Utraquists were major Hussite groups. Following the joint Utraquist—Catholic victory, Utraquism was accepted as a distinct form of Christianity to be practiced in Bohemia by the Catholic Church while all remaining Hussite groups were prohibited.

In the wake of the Reformation, Utraquist Hussites took a renewed increasingly anti-Catholic stance, while some of the defeated Hussite factions notably Taborites were revived.

After the Habsburgs regained control of Bohemia, the whole population was forcibly converted to Catholicism—even the Utraquist Hussites.

Going forward, Czechs have become more wary and pessimistic of religion as such. A long history of resistance to the Catholic Church followed.

It suffered a schism with the neo-Hussite Czechoslovak Hussite Church in , lost the bulk of its adherents during the Communist era and continues to lose in the modern, ongoing secularization.

Protestantism never recovered after the Counter-Reformation was introduced by the Austrian Habsburgs in Education in the Czech Republic is compulsory for 9 years and citizens have access to a tuition-free university education , while the average number of years of education is Healthcare in the Czech Republic is similar in quality to other developed nations.

The Czech universal health care system is based on a compulsory insurance model , with fee-for-service care funded by mandatory employment-related insurance plans.

Theodoric of Prague was the most famous Czech painter in the Gothic era. For example, he decorated the castle Karlstejn.

At the end of the century came a wave of Art Nouveau. Alfons Mucha became the main representative. He is today the most famous Czech painter.

The 20th century brought avant-garde revolution. The Czech Republic is known worldwide for its individually made, mouth blown and decorated Bohemian glass.

The earliest preserved stone buildings in Bohemia and Moravia date back to the time of the Christianization in the 9th and 10th century.

Since the Middle Ages, the Czech lands have been using the same architectural styles as most of Western and Central Europe.

The oldest still standing churches were built in the Romanesque style St. George's Basilica , St. Vitus Cathedral , St. During the Hussite wars , many of them were damaged or destroyed.

An example of the pure Renaissance architecture in Bohemia is the Queen Anne's Summer Palace , which was situated in a newly established garden of Prague Castle.

In the 17th century, the Baroque style spread throughout the Crown of Bohemia. Very outstanding are the architectural projects of the Czech nobleman and imperial generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein from the s Wallenstein Palace.

His architects Andrea Spezza and Giovanni Pieroni reflected the most recent Italian production and were very innovative at the same time.

In the first third of the 18th century the Bohemian lands were one of the leading artistic centers of the Baroque style. In Bohemia there was completed the development of the Radical Baroque style created in Italy by Francesco Borromini and Guarino Guarini in a very original way.

In the 18th century Bohemia produced an architectural peculiarity — the Baroque Gothic style , a synthesis of the Gothic and Baroque styles.

This was not a simple return to Gothic details, but rather an original Baroque transformation. During the 19th century, the revival architectural styles were very popular in the Bohemian monarchy.

Peter and Paul in Brno. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries the new art style appeared in the Czech lands — Art Nouveau.

Bohemia contributed an unusual style to the world's architectural heritage when Czech architects attempted to transpose the Cubism of painting and sculpture into architecture House of the Black Madonna.

During the first years of the independent Czechoslovakia after , a specifically Czech architectural style, called Rondo-Cubism , came into existence.

Together with the pre-war Czech Cubist architecture it is unparalleled elsewhere in the world. The first Czechoslovak president T.

Between World Wars I and II, Functionalism , with its sober, progressive forms, took over as the main architectural style in the newly established Czechoslovak Republic.

In the city of Brno, one of the most impressive functionalist works has been preserved — Villa Tugendhat , designed by the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.

Hotel International in Prague is a brilliant example of the so-called Socialist realism , the Stalinistic art style of the s.

The Czechoslovak avant-garde artistic movement known as the Brussels style named after the Brussels World's Fair Expo 58 became popular in the time of political liberalization of Czechoslovakia in the s.

Even today, the Czech Republic is not shying away from the most modern trends of international architecture. In a strict sense, Czech literature is the literature written in the Czech language.

A more liberal definition incorporates all literary works written in the Czech lands regardless of language. Thus Franz Kafka , who—while bilingual in Czech and German [] [] —wrote his works The Trial , The Castle in German, during the era of Austrian rule, can represent the Czech , German or Austrian literature depending on the point of view.

Bible translations played an important role in the development of Czech literature and the standard Czech language. The oldest Czech translation of the Psalms originated in the late 13th century and the first complete Czech translation of the Bible was finished around The first complete printed Czech Bible was published in Prague Bible.

The first complete Czech Bible translation from the original languages was published between and and is known as the Bible of Kralice.

The Codex Gigas from the 12th century is the largest extant medieval manuscript in the world. The Czech Republic has the densest network of libraries in Europe.

Czech literature and culture played a major role on at least two occasions when Czechs lived under oppression and political activity was suppressed.

On both of these occasions, in the early 19th century and then again in the s, the Czechs used their cultural and literary effort to strive for political freedom, establishing a confident, politically aware nation.

The musical tradition of the Czech lands arose from first church hymns, whose first evidence is suggested at the break of 10th and 11th century.

In , in the beginning of the Czechoslovak state, the song was discussed as one of the possible choices for the national anthem.

The wealth of musical culture in the Czech Republic lies in the long-term high-culture classical music tradition during all historical periods, especially in the Baroque , Classicism , Romantic, modern classical music and in the traditional folk music of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia.

Since the early era of artificial music, Czech musicians and composers have often been influenced the folk music of the region and dances e.

Czech music can be considered to have been beneficial in both the European and worldwide context, several times co-determined or even determined a newly arriving era in musical art, [] above all of Classical era, as well as by original attitudes in Baroque , Romantic and modern classical music.

The most famous music festival in the country is Prague Spring International Music Festival of classical music, a permanent showcase for outstanding performing artists, symphony orchestras and chamber music ensembles of the world.

The roots of Czech theatre can be found in the Middle Ages, especially in cultural life of gothic period. In the 19th century, the theatre played an important role in the national awakening movement and later, in the 20th century it became a part of the modern European theatre art.

Original Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the s. This project called Laterna magika The Magic Lantern was the brainchild of renowned film and theater director Alfred Radok , resulting in productions that combined theater, dance and film in a poetic manner, considered the first multimedia art project in international context.

The tradition of Czech cinematography started in the second half of the s. However, dramatic movies were more internationally successful.

Another Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the s. This project called Laterna magika "The Magic Lantern" , resulting in productions that combined theater, dance and film in a poetic manner, considered the first multimedia art project in international context mentioned also in Theatre section above.

The hallmark of the films of this movement were long, often improvised dialogues , black and absurd humor and the occupation of non-actors.

Directors are trying to preserve natural atmosphere without refinement and artificial arrangement of scenes. He is a self-labeled surrealist known for his animations and features, which have greatly influenced many artists worldwide.

The Czech Lion is the highest Czech award for film achievement. The Barrandov Studios in Prague are the largest film studios in country and one of the largest in Europe with many many popular film locations in the country.

Karlovy Vary International Film Festival is one of the oldest in the world and has become Central and Eastern Europe's leading film event.

Since the Czech Republic is a democratic republic, journalists and media enjoy a great degree of freedom.

There are restrictions only against writing in support of Nazism , racism or violating Czech law.

The most watched main news program is TV Nova. Newspapers are quite popular in the Czech Republic. The best-selling daily national newspapers are Blesk average 1.

The Czech Game of the Year Awards are held annually to recognize accomplishments in video game development. Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes.

Pork is quite common; beef and chicken are also popular. Goose, duck, rabbit and venison are served. Fish is less common, with the occasional exception of fresh trout and carp , which is served at Christmas.

Czech beer has a long and important history. The first brewery is known to have existed in and the Czech Republic has the highest beer consumption per capita in the world.

Apart from these and other major brands, the Czech Republic also has a growing number of small breweries and mini-breweries. Aside from slivovitz , Czech beer and wine, the Czechs also produce two unique liquors , Fernet Stock and Becherovka.

Kofola is a non-alcoholic domestic cola soft drink which competes with Coca-Cola and Pepsi in popularity.

Sports play a part in the life of many Czechs, who are generally loyal supporters of their favorite teams or individuals.

The two leading sports in the Czech Republic are ice hockey and football. The many other sports with professional leagues and structures include basketball, volleyball, team handball , track and field athletics and floorball.

The country has won 14 gold medals in summer plus 49 as Czechoslovakia and five gold medals plus two as Czechoslovakia in winter Olympic history.

Czech hockey school has a good reputation. The Czech ice hockey team won the gold medal at the Winter Olympics and has won twelve gold medals at the World Championships including 6 as Czechoslovakia , including three straight from to The Czechoslovakia national football team was a consistent performer on the international scene, with eight appearances in the FIFA World Cup Finals, finishing in second place in and The team also won the European Football Championship in , came in third in and won the Olympic gold in After dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech national football team finished in second and third place at the European Football Championship.

Czech Republic women's national basketball team won the EuroBasket Women. Czechoslovakia national basketball team won EuroBasket It will take place in Prague for the Group Phase matches.

Czech Republic hosted the EuroBasket Women recently. MTX automobile company was formerly engaged in the manufacture of racing and formula cars since Czech Republic MotoGP is the most famous motor race in the country.

Sport is a source of strong waves of patriotism, usually rising several days or weeks before an event. Czechs are also generally keen on engaging in sports activities themselves.

One of the most popular sports Czechs do is hiking, mainly in the mountains. The word for "tourist" in the Czech language, turista , also means "trekker" or "hiker".

For hikers, thanks to the more than year-old tradition, there is a Czech Hiking Markers System of trail blazing , that has been adopted by countries worldwide.

The most significant sports venues are Eden Arena e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Tschechien. Country in Central Europe.

For other uses, see Czechia disambiguation and Czech Republic disambiguation. Greater coat of arms. The question is rhetorical , implying "those places where my homeland lies".

Code 42 was shared with Slovakia until Main article: Name of the Czech Republic. Historical affiliations. Main article: History of the Czech lands.

Maximum Celtic expansion by the s BCE. Areas that remain Celtic-speaking today. Main article: Bohemia.

Main article: History of Czechoslovakia. Main articles: Velvet Revolution and Dissolution of Czechoslovakia.

Main article: Geography of the Czech Republic. Berounka river valley in western Bohemia. Beskids mountains in eastern Moravia. Humid continental climate.

Oceanic climate. Subarctic climate. European eagle-owl , a protected predator. Fire salamander , a common amphibian in humid forests.

Red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris , a protected animal. Summer cep occurs in deciduous oak forests.

Straka Academy , seat of the Government. Thun Palace, seat of the Chamber of Deputies. Wallenstein Palace , seat of the Senate.

Main article: Foreign relations of the Czech Republic. Main article: Army of the Czech Republic. Main article: Economy of the Czech Republic.

Main article: Energy in the Czech Republic. Main article: Transport in the Czech Republic. Main article: Internet in the Czech Republic.

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You can help by converting this section , if appropriate. Editing help is available. January Main article: Tourism in the Czech Republic.

Main article: Demographics of the Czech Republic. Religion in the Czech Republic [6] Undeclared. Main article: Education in the Czech Republic.

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Main articles: Music of the Czech Lands and Moravian traditional music. The National Theatre left and the Estates Theatre right.

Tschenien - Navigation und Service

Ab bis v. Der wichtigste Sport auch als Nationalsport bezeichnet ist Eishockey. Juni zum Ministerpräsidenten mit dem Auftrag der Regierungsbildung. August begann die militärische Intervention gegen den Prager Frühling: sowjetische und weitere Truppen des Warschauer Pakts besetzten die Tschechoslowakei. Zehn Ideen für einen Themenurlaub im UNESCO-Land Tschechien - Heilende Bäder, jahrhundertealte Schlösser und einzigartige Naturlandschaften Whether. Coronavirus: Situation in Tschechien. Aktuelle Lage und Info-Update. Das AußenwirtschaftsCenter Prag bietet österreichischen Unternehmen laufend aktuelle. Flag Tschechische Republik Tschechische Republik (Tschechische Republik). Stand (Unverändert gültig seit: ). Berichterstattung, Interviews, Reportagen und Online-Archiv in sechs Sprachen.

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Tschechien - Tag 4: Tour durch Prag!// Wir besichtigen die „Goldene Stadt“! 🤩 Ein wichtiger Feiertag für Christen ist der 5. Tschechen können auch einige grundlegende Wörter oder einfache Sätze in anderen slawischen Sprachen Polnisch, Bulgarisch, Serbokroatisch, u. Restaurants, Hotels, Museen und Sehenswürdigkeiten sind mit Einschränkungen hinsichtlich Belegungs- und Besucherzahlen geöffnet. Eine Zahlung der Geldstrafe im Blockverfahren bedeutet, dass der Betroffene auf weitere Rechtsmittel verzichtet. April zählte Tschechien Das Klima in Tschechien ist von dem Übergang zwischen einem ozeanisch und dem kontinentalen Klima Eagle Wings, so sind die Temperaturen continue reading Vergleich zu link Staaten auf dem gleichen Breitengrad im Sommer kühler, aber die Winter sind dazu im Gegensatz nicht so kalt und weisen eine relative Feuchtigkeit link. Informieren Sie sich rechtzeitig! Von Prag führt nach. Bier gilt als Nationalgetränk. Die böhmischen Länder waren ein Zentrum der Industrialisierung der Habsburgermonarchie.

Die Einwohnerzahl beträgt 1. Als die Tschetschenen nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg unter Stalin deportiert wurden, war die Region kurzfristig mehrheitlich von Russen bewohnt, nach der Wiederherstellung Tschetscheno-Inguschetiens erlangten die Tschetschenen ihre Bevölkerungsmehrheit aber zurück.

Nordtschetschenien war teilweise erst Ende der er-Jahre an Tschetschenien angeschlossen worden und bis dahin mehrheitlich von Russen bewohnt.

Mit dem Beginn des ersten Tschetschenienkrieges kam es zu einem Kollaps der Wirtschaft und ethnischen Säuberungen gegen Russen, die in einem Exodus dieser Bevölkerungsgruppe gipfelten.

Von den Opfern seien etwa Laut amtlicher Bevölkerungszählung von beträgt die Anzahl der Tschetschenen in Russland 1.

Zur früheren Geschichte: siehe Tschetschenen. Die russische Einflussnahme in Tschetschenien begann bereits im Jahrhundert, als die Kosakenfestung Tarki gegründet wurde und das erste Kosakenheer entstand.

Zu dieser Zeit lebten die Tschetschenen allerdings noch im gebirgigen Südteil, die Ebenen im Norden wurden erst im Laufe des Jahrhunderts allmählich besiedelt.

Sie stellte die strategisch wichtigste Verbindung Russlands nach Südkaukasien dar und war eine häufige Zielscheibe für Raubüberfälle der Tschetschenen und Inguschen.

Auch die Terekkosaken siedelten sich in Tschetschenien an. Die Bergvölker widersetzten sich zäh den Russen.

In den so genannten Muridenkriegen von bis wurden sie von dem legendären Imam Schamil , einem Dagestaner, angeführt.

Dieser Aufstand wurde niedergeschlagen. Die russische Besatzung löste eine Auswanderungs- und Deportationswelle aus, die bis zum Ende des Jahrhunderts anhielt.

Nach einer anfänglichen, vergleichsweise liberalen Phase unter Lenin , in der die Sprachen kleinerer Völker, darunter auch das Tschetschenische, zur Schriftsprache ausgebaut und gefördert wurden Korenisazija , kehrte die Sowjetunion unter Stalin bald zu einer repressiven Kulturpolitik zurück, die speziell in Tschetschenien zu Unzufriedenheit führte.

Tatsächlich unterstützten nur wenige Tschetschenen den Aufstand Israilows, der über rund Nachdem die deutsche Wehrmacht nicht bis nach Tschetschenien hatte vordringen können, wurde der Aufstand nach anfänglichen Erfolgen schnell niedergeschlagen.

Wegen ihrer angeblichen Kollaboration mit den Nazis beschloss die sowjetische Führung die ausnahmslose gewaltsame Deportation aller Tschetschenen und Inguschen nach Zentralasien, speziell nach Kasachstan und Kirgisistan.

Im Februar wurden Personen, die Widerstand gegen die Deportation leisteten, wurden meist hingerichtet, zum Teil kam es auch zu wahllosen Tötungen, so etwa im Dorf Chaibach , wo unter der Leitung des Georgiers Michail Gwischiani [13] über Menschen in einer Scheune verbrannt wurden.

In die verlassenen tschetschenischen Dörfer zogen zum Teil Neuankömmlinge aus dem Westen der Sowjetunion, deren Heimat vom Krieg zerstört worden war; meist waren dies Russen und Ukrainer.

Chruschtschow erlaubte den Tschetschenen , in ihre Heimat zurückzukehren und rehabilitierte sie offiziell. Einige Gebiete, die an Nordossetien abgetreten worden waren, wurden jedoch nicht an Tschetscheno-Inguschetien zurückgegeben.

Es erhielt im Gegenzug dazu Territorium, das vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg zur Region Stawropol gehört hatte, mehrheitlich von Russen bewohnt war und in dem keine Tschetschenen gelebt hatten.

Dabei handelte es sich um die heute im Norden Tschetscheniens gelegenen Rajons Naurski und Schelkowskoi , die rund ein Drittel der Fläche des heutigen Tschetscheniens ausmachen.

Manche von ihnen hatten sich erst ab in Tschetschenien niedergelassen, inzwischen aber eine Existenz dort aufgebaut und nahmen tschetschenische Besitzansprüche als Bedrohung wahr, während viele alteingesessene Russen die Tschetschenen noch immer als Nazi-Kollaborateure betrachteten.

Teilweise schwelten diese Konflikte unter der Oberfläche weiter und kamen erst nach dem Ende der Sowjetunion zum Ausbruch. So war etwa Grosny bis eine Stadt mit zwei Parallelgesellschaften, von denen eine aus Tschetschenen, die andere aus Russen, Armeniern und Ukrainern bestand.

Aufgrund höherer Geburtenrate und Abwanderung anderer Volksgruppen stieg der Bevölkerungsanteil der Tschetschenen in den nachfolgenden Jahrzehnten, während die Russen zunehmend in die Minderheit gerieten — auch in Naurski und Schelkowskoi, wo sie historisch die Bevölkerungsmehrheit darstellten.

In den er-Jahren verloren die Russen ihre Bevölkerungsmehrheit in den beiden letztgenannten Distrikten, nur in der Hauptstadt Grosny bildeten sie noch die Mehrheit.

Als sich der Zerfall der Sowjetunion abzeichnete, kam auch in Tschetschenien eine separatistische Bewegung auf.

Boris Jelzin warb für weitreichendere Autonomierechte für Tschetschenien und hoffte so erfolglos , dortige Nationalisten zu beschwichtigen.

Zur Sowjetzeit hatten verschiedene Regionen einen unterschiedlichen Status erhalten. Kasachstan oder die Ukraine. Autonome Sowjetrepubliken wiederum waren Teil einer übergeordneten Sowjetrepublik, im Falle Tschetscheniens war dies die Russische Sowjetrepublik.

Im September , als die Auflösung der Sowjetunion nur noch eine Formalie war, wurde der bisherige, pro-russische Regierungschef Tschetscheniens, Doku Sawgajew , durch den ehemaligen Luftwaffengeneral und Nationalisten Dschochar Dudajew abgelöst.

Dudajew leistete seinen Amtseid auf den Koran und strebte als neuer Regierungschef die Unabhängigkeit an.

Kurz darauf trennte sich Inguschetien von Tschetschenien und entschied sich für einen Verbleib bei Russland.

Noch im Oktober organisierte Dudajew ein umstrittenes Unabhängigkeitsreferendum. Am Moskau-freundliche tschetschenische Politiker wie Ruslan Chasbulatow zweifelten das Ergebnis und die Durchführung an und bestritten, dass es eine Mehrheit für die Unabhängigkeit gebe.

November erklärte Dudajew einseitig die Unabhängigkeit Tschetscheniens. Russland akzeptierte die Entscheidung nicht, erklärte Dudajews Regierung für nicht legitim und verhängte den Ausnahmezustand über Tschetschenien.

Truppen des russischen Innenministeriums wurden jedoch zurückgeschlagen. Russland versuchte weiterhin Einfluss auf Tschetschenien zu nehmen und unterstützte dort pro-russische Politiker, de facto war Tschetschenien nun aber unabhängig, wenngleich internationale Anerkennung ausblieb.

Dudajew verfolgte innenpolitisch eine anti-russische Politik, versuchte die russische Sprache zu verdrängen, schaffte das kyrillische Alphabet ab und belebte das tschetschenische Clansystem neu.

Durch Diskriminierung und teils offene Gewalt wurden die meisten nicht-tschetschenischen Bewohner in die Flucht getrieben.

Die Wirtschaft der Region kollabierte und die Kriminalität blühte auf [17]. Dudajew war wegen seiner erfolglosen Wirtschaftspolitik auch in Tschetschenien höchst umstritten und immer Kritik aus den eigenen Reihen ausgesetzt.

Im Herbst unterstützte Russland einen Putsch des pro-russischen Politikers Umar Awturchanow , der jedoch scheiterte.

Bei den Versuchen, Awturchanow und dessen Unterstützer aus Grosny zu befreien, wurden bis zu 70 russische Soldaten und pro-russische Milizionäre gefangen genommen und ein Kampfhubschrauber über Grosny abgeschossen.

Dezember begann damit der Erste Tschetschenienkrieg , als russische Truppen nach Tschetschenien einrückten. Nach anfänglichen Erfolgen gestaltete sich bereits die Einnahme Grosnys als verlustreich und langwierig.

Die russische Kampfmoral war von Anfang an gering, die tschetschenischen Kräfte erhielten massive Unterstützung aus dem Ausland, besonders aus der islamischen Welt, und wechselten zur Guerillakriegsführung.

Die Kampfhandlungen dehnten sich auf angrenzende Regionen aus, so etwa wie im Falle der Geiselnahme von Budjonnowsk. Im August gelang es den Tschetschenen, Grosny zurückzuerobern.

Die russische Armee verlor dabei mehrere hundert Soldaten und erlitt eine dramatische und demütigende Niederlage.

Daraufhin schloss Russland, vertreten durch General Alexander Lebed , einen Friedensvertrag mit Tschetschenien und zog sich zurück.

Der Vertrag bestätigte zwar die Eigenstaatlichkeit des Landes nicht, akzeptierte aber de facto die Regierung der Rebellen als Verhandlungspartner und sah weitere Gespräche mit ihnen vor.

Der Krieg hatte auch auf tschetschenischer Seite viele Opfer gefordert und die wirtschaftliche Lage war nun noch prekärer als zuvor.

Dies führte zur Radikalisierung weiter Teile der tschetschenischen Gesellschaft und Führung. Der saudische Wahhabismus hatte ebenso wie dschihadistische Ideen Einzug gehalten.

Zwischen und wurde die Scharia in Tschetschenien eingeführt; mit der folgenden Law-and-Order-Politik wurden andere Kultureinflüsse verboten und bereits für kleine Delikte die Todesstrafe verhängt.

Mit dem Einmarsch russischer Truppen im Zweiten Tschetschenienkrieg wurde die Existenz des unabhängigen Staates beendet.

Die heute noch aktive Rebellenbewegung in Tschetschenien hält allerdings noch an dem Terminus Tschetschenische Republik Itschkerien fest — im Gegensatz zur von Moskau gestützten Regierung von Ramsan Kadyrow.

Der nominelle Präsident der Gegenregierung war bis zum Juni Scheich Abdul Halim Sadulajew. Er wurde von russischen Truppen während einer antiterroristischen Operation in seiner Heimatstadt Argun getötet.

September in der Folge einer Lebensmittelvergiftung starb. Er behauptete sich jedoch nicht gegen die immer stärker werdenden radikalen Gruppierungen, die von eingeströmten ausländischen, zumeist arabischen Kriegsherren ideologisch inspiriert, finanziert und teilweise angeführt wurden.

Mai hatte eine wahhabitische Gruppe versucht, das Dagestaner Regierungsgebäude zu stürmen. Ein Terroranschlag in Machatschkala , der Hauptstadt der benachbarten russischen Republik Dagestan, am 4.

Es kam zu schweren Gefechten mit der russischen Armee. Bis Ende September wurden die tschetschenischen Einheiten aus Dagestan vertrieben.

Sowohl vor als auch nach dem Einfall in Dagestan hatte es andere Terroranschläge auf russischem Gebiet gegeben, insbesondere in Wolgodonsk und Moskau.

Die russische Regierung machte tschetschenische Separatisten für die Taten verantwortlich; die Tschetschenen bestritten das jedoch, die endgültige Schuldfrage ist bis heute unklar.

Im Gegensatz zu seinem Vorgänger gelang es Putin, die Kämpfe schnell zu beenden und Tschetschenien vollständig unter russische Kontrolle zu bringen.

Die Region erhielt nun wieder den Status einer autonomen Republik innerhalb Russlands. Es folgte eine von Terroranschlägen, Gewalt und Menschenrechtsverletzungen geprägte Zeit.

In the 19th century, the Czech lands became heavily industrialized and were subsequently the core of the First Czechoslovak Republic , which was formed in following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I.

Czechoslovakia was the only democracy in Central Europe during the interwar period. The country was restored in Most members of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war.

Increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in to the reform movement known as the Prague Spring , which ended in a Soviet-led invasion.

Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the Velvet Revolution , which peacefully ended communist rule and reestablished democracy with a market economy.

On 1 January , Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved , with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

The Czech Republic is a developed country with an advanced , high income social market economy. It ranks as the eleventh safest and most peaceful country and performs well in democratic governance.

When the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in , the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country.

After Czechoslovakia dissolved in , the new Czech state lacked a common English short name. The Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs recommended the English name Czechia in , and the Czech government approved Czechia as the official short name in Archaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric human settlements in the area, dating back to the Paleolithic era.

In the classical era , as a result of the 3rd century BC Celtic migrations, Bohemia became associated with the Boii. The Boii founded an oppidum near the site of modern Prague.

Later in the 1st century, the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi settled there. Their king Maroboduus is the first documented ruler of Bohemia.

During the Migration Period around the 5th century, many Germanic tribes moved westwards and southwards out of Central Europe. Most of the names of Czech rivers are Celtic or old Germanic in origin, dating from usage in those years.

Slavs from the Black Sea — Carpathian region settled in the area their migration was pushed by an invasion of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe into their area: Huns , Avars , Bulgars and Magyars.

In the sixth century, they moved westwards into Bohemia, Moravia, and some of present-day Austria and Germany. During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo , supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars , became the ruler of the first known Slavic state in Central Europe, Samo's Empire.

The principality of Great Moravia , controlled by Moymir dynasty , arose in the 8th century. It reached its zenith in the 9th during the reign of Svatopluk I of Moravia , holding off the influence of the Franks.

Great Moravia was Christianized, with a crucial role being played by the Byzantine mission of Cyril and Methodius. They created the artificial language Old Church Slavonic , the first literary and liturgical language of the Slavs , and the Glagolitic alphabet.

The kingdom was a significant regional power during the Middle Ages. The bull declared that the King of Bohemia would be exempt from all future obligations to the Holy Roman Empire except for participation in imperial councils.

German immigrants settled in the Bohemian periphery in the 13th century. Germans populated towns and mining districts and, in some cases, formed German colonies in the interior of Bohemia.

In , the Mongols launched an invasion of Europe. After the Battle of Legnica in Poland, the Mongols carried their raids into Moravia, but were defensively defeated at the fortified town of Olomouc.

He built a great empire stretching from the Danube river to the Baltic Sea. After a series of dynastic wars, the House of Luxembourg gained the Bohemian throne.

Much of Prague Castle and the cathedral of Saint Vitus in Gothic style were completed during his reign.

He unified Brandenburg until , Lusatia until , and Silesia until under the Bohemian crown. The most famous figure of the nascent Bohemian Reformation became Jan Hus.

Hussite George of Podebrady was even a king. Hus's thoughts were a major influence on the later Lutheranism. Martin Luther himself said "we are all Hussites, without having been aware of it" and considered himself as Hus's direct successor.

After Bohemia came increasingly under Habsburg control as the Habsburgs became first the elected and then in the hereditary rulers of Bohemia.

The Defenestration of Prague and subsequent revolt against the Habsburgs in marked the start of the Thirty Years' War , which quickly spread throughout Central Europe.

In , the rebellion in Bohemia was crushed at the Battle of White Mountain , and the ties between Bohemia and the Habsburgs' hereditary lands in Austria were strengthened.

The leaders of the Bohemian Revolt were executed in The nobility and the middle class Protestants had to either convert to Catholicism or leave the country.

The following period, from to the late 18th century, has often been called colloquially the "Dark Age". The population of the Czech lands declined by a third through the expulsion of Czech Protestants as well as due to the war, disease and famine.

Ottoman Turks and Tatars invaded Moravia in In the Prussians invaded Bohemia and after the Battle of Prague occupied the city. More than one quarter of Prague was destroyed and St.

Vitus Cathedral also suffered heavy damage. In and Great Famine killed about one tenth of the Czech population, or , inhabitants, and radicalized the countryside leading to peasant uprisings.

Joseph Radetzky von Radetz , born to a noble Czech family, was a field marshal and chief of the general staff of the Austrian Empire army during these wars.

The end of the Holy Roman Empire in led to degradation of the political status of the Kingdom of Bohemia.

Bohemia lost its position of an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire as well as its own political representation in the Imperial Diet.

During the 18th and 19th century the Czech National Revival began its rise, with the purpose to revive Czech language, culture and national identity.

The Revolution of in Prague, striving for liberal reforms and autonomy of the Bohemian Crown within the Austrian Empire, was suppressed.

The Austrian Empire needed to redefine itself to maintain unity in the face of nationalism. At first it seemed that some concessions would be made also to Bohemia, but in the end the Emperor Franz Joseph I effected a compromise with Hungary only.

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of and the never realized coronation of Franz Joseph as King of Bohemia led to a huge disappointment of Czech politicians.

The first elections under universal male suffrage were held in An estimated 1. Although the majority of Czech soldiers fought for the Austro-Hungarian Empire , more than 90, Czech volunteers formed the Czechoslovak Legions in France, Italy and Russia, where they fought against the Central Powers and later against Bolshevik troops.

In Czechoslovakia held 10th place in the world industrial production. Although the First Czechoslovak Republic was a unitary state , it provided what were at the time rather extensive rights to its minorities and remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period.

The effects of the Great Depression including high unemployment and massive propaganda from Nazi Germany, however, resulted in discontent and strong support among ethnic Germans for a break from Czechoslovakia.

Adolf Hitler took advantage of this opportunity and using Konrad Henlein 's separatist Sudeten German Party , gained the largely German-speaking Sudetenland and its substantial Maginot Line -like border fortifications through the Munich Agreement signed by Nazi Germany , France, Britain, and Italy.

Czechoslovakia was not invited to the conference, and Czechs and Slovaks call the Munich Agreement the Munich Betrayal because France which had an alliance with Czechoslovakia and Britain gave up Czechoslovakia instead of facing Hitler, which later proved inevitable.

Despite the mobilization of 1. The remainders of Slovakia and the Subcarpathian Rus gained greater autonomy, with the state renamed to " Czecho-Slovakia ".

After Nazi Germany threatened to annex part of Slovakia, allowing the remaining regions to be partitioned by Hungary and Poland, Slovakia chose to maintain its national and territorial integrity, seceding from Czecho-Slovakia in March , and allying itself, as demanded by Germany, with Hitler's coalition.

The remaining Czech territory was occupied by Germany , which transformed it into the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.

The protectorate was proclaimed part of the Third Reich, and the president and prime minister were subordinated to the Nazi Germany's Reichsprotektor.

Subcarpathian Rus declared independence as the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine on 15 March but was invaded by Hungary the same day and formally annexed the next day.

Approximately , Czechoslovak citizens, including , Jews, were killed or executed while hundreds of thousands of others were sent to prisons and Nazi concentration camps or used as forced labor.

Up to two-thirds of the citizens were in groups targeted by the Nazis for deportation or death. The Nazi Generalplan Ost called for the extermination, expulsion, Germanization or enslavement of most or all Czechs for the purpose of providing more living space for the German people.

On 9 June Hitler ordered bloody reprisals against the Czechs as a response to the Czech anti-Nazi resistance. The German occupation ended on 9 May , with the arrival of the Soviet and American armies and the Prague uprising.

An estimated , Soviet soldiers died in liberating Czechoslovakia from German rule. During this time, thousands of Germans were held in prisons and detention camps or used as forced labor.

In the summer of , there were several massacres, such as the Postoloprty massacre. Research by a joint German and Czech commission of historians in found that the death toll of the expulsions was at least 15, persons and that it could range up to a maximum of 30, dead.

Following a Soviet-organized referendum, the Subcarpathian Rus never returned under Czechoslovak rule but became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic , as the Zakarpattia Oblast in Czechoslovakia uneasily tried to play the role of a "bridge" between the West and East.

However, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia rapidly increased in popularity, with a general disillusionment with the West, because of the pre-war Munich Agreement , and a favourable popular attitude towards the Soviet Union, because of the Soviets' role in liberating Czechoslovakia from German rule.

They formed a coalition government with other parties of the National Front and moved quickly to consolidate power. The Communist People's Militias secured control of key locations in Prague, and a single party government was formed.

For the next 41 years , Czechoslovakia was a Communist state within the Eastern Bloc. This period is characterized by lagging behind the West in almost every aspect of social and economic development.

The country's GDP per capita fell from the level of neighboring Austria to below that of Greece or Portugal in the s. The Communist government completely nationalized the means of production and established a command economy.

The economy grew rapidly during the s but slowed down in the s and s and stagnated in the s. This was forcibly ended by invasion by all Warsaw Pact member countries with the exception of Romania and Albania on 21 August Student Jan Palach became a symbol of resistance to the occupation, when he committed self-immolation as a political protest.

The invasion was followed by a harsh program of " Normalization " in the late s and the s. Until , the political establishment relied on censorship of the opposition.

Dissidents published Charter 77 in , and the first of a new wave of protests were seen in Between and about , Czechs and Slovaks were sent to prison for political reasons, and over , emigrated.

However, Slovak national aspirations strengthened see Hyphen War and on 1 January , the country peacefully split into the independent countries of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Both countries went through economic reforms and privatisations , with the intention of creating a market economy.

This process was largely successful; in the Czech Republic was recognized by the World Bank as a "developed country", [20] and in the Human Development Index ranked it as a nation of "Very High Human Development".

The Czech landscape is exceedingly varied. Moravia, the eastern part of the country, is also quite hilly. The Czech Republic also leases the Moldauhafen , a 30,square-meter 7.

The territory reverts to Germany in According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the territory of the Czech Republic can be subdivided into four ecoregions : the Western European broadleaf forests , Central European mixed forests , Pannonian mixed forests, and Carpathian montane conifer forests.

There are four national parks in the Czech Republic. The three historical lands of the Czech Republic formerly the core countries of the Bohemian Crown correspond almost perfectly with the river basins of the Elbe Czech : Labe and the Vltava basin for Bohemia, the Morava one for Moravia, and the Oder river basin for Czech Silesia in terms of the Czech territory.

The Czech Republic mostly has a temperate oceanic climate , with warm summers and cold, cloudy and snowy winters. The temperature difference between summer and winter is relatively high, due to the landlocked geographical position.

Within the Czech Republic, temperatures vary greatly, depending on the elevation. In general, at higher altitudes, the temperatures decrease and precipitation increases.

Another important factor is the distribution of the mountains; therefore, the climate is quite varied. The country's capital, Prague, has a similar average temperature, although this is influenced by urban factors.

The coldest month is usually January, followed by February and December. During these months, there is usually snow in the mountains and sometimes in the major cities and lowlands.

During March, April, and May, the temperature usually increases rapidly, especially during April, when the temperature and weather tends to vary widely during the day.

Spring is also characterized by high water levels in the rivers, due to melting snow with occasional flooding. The warmest month of the year is July, followed by August and June.

Summer is also characterized by rain and storms. Autumn generally begins in September, which is still relatively warm and dry. By the end of November, temperatures usually range around the freezing point.

Most rain falls during the summer. Sporadic rainfall is relatively constant throughout the year in Prague, the average number of days per month experiencing at least 0.

The Czech Republic ranks as the 27th most environmentally conscious country in the world in Environmental Performance Index.

The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy , with the President as head of state and Prime Minister as head of government.

The president is a formal head of state with limited and specific powers, most importantly to return bills to the parliament, appoint members to the board of the Czech National Bank , nominate constitutional court judges for the Senate's approval and dissolve the Chamber of Deputies under certain special and unusual circumstances.

The president and vice president of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President of the Republic. He also appoints the prime minister, as well the other members of the cabinet on a proposal by the prime minister.

Since the presidential election is direct. The Government of the Czech Republic 's exercise of executive power derives from the Constitution.

The members of the government are the Prime Minister , Deputy prime ministers and other ministers. The Government is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies.

The Prime Minister is the head of government and wields considerable powers, such as the right to set the agenda for most foreign and domestic policy and choose government ministers.

There are 14 voting districts, identical to the country's administrative regions. The Chamber of Deputies, the successor to the Czech National Council , has the powers and responsibilities of the now defunct federal parliament of the former Czechoslovakia.

The members of the Senate are elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round runoff voting for a six-year term, with one-third elected every even year in the autumn.

The first election was in , for differing terms. This arrangement is modeled on the U. Senate , but each constituency is roughly the same size and the voting system used is a two-round runoff.

The Czech Republic is a unitary state with a civil law system based on the continental type, rooted in Germanic legal culture.

The basis of the legal system is the Constitution of the Czech Republic adopted in The Penal Code is effective from A new Civil code became effective in The court system includes district, county and supreme courts and is divided into civil, criminal, and administrative branches.

The Czech judiciary has a triumvirate of supreme courts. The Constitutional Court consists of 15 constitutional judges and oversees violations of the Constitution by either the legislature or by the government.

The Supreme Court is formed of 67 judges and is the court of highest appeal for almost all legal cases heard in the Czech Republic. The Supreme Administrative Court decides on issues of procedural and administrative propriety.

It also has jurisdiction over many political matters, such as the formation and closure of political parties, jurisdictional boundaries between government entities, and the eligibility of persons to stand for public office.

The Czech Republic ranks as the 11th safest or most peaceful country. The Czech passport is one of the least restricted by visas.

The Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs have primary roles in setting foreign policy, although the President has considerable influence and also represents the country abroad.

Czech officials have supported dissenters in Belarus , Moldova , Myanmar and Cuba. The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence.

The President of the Czech Republic is Commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In the army transformed itself into a fully professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished.

Defence spending is approximately 1. Since , the Czech Republic has been divided into thirteen regions Czech : kraje , singular kraj and the capital city of Prague.

In Prague, the assembly and presidential powers are executed by the city council and the mayor. The older seventy-six districts okresy , singular okres including three "statutory cities" without Prague, which had special status lost most of their importance in in an administrative reform; they remain as territorial divisions and seats of various branches of state administration.

The Czech Republic has a developed , [83] high-income [84] export-oriented social market economy based in services, manufacturing and innovation, that maintains a welfare state and the European social model.

Monetary policy is conducted by the Czech National Bank , whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution.

Dividends worth CZK billion were paid to the foreign owners of Czech companies in , which has become a political issue in the Czech Republic.

Production of Czech electricity exceeds consumption by about 10 TWh per year, which are exported. Nuclear power presently provides about 30 percent of the total power needs, its share is projected to increase to 40 percent.

In , The Czech Republic is reducing its dependence on highly polluting low-grade brown coal as a source of energy. Natural gas is procured from Russian Gazprom , roughly three-fourths of domestic consumption and from Norwegian companies, which make up most of the remaining one-fourth.

Russian gas is imported via Ukraine, Norwegian gas is transported through Germany. Gas consumption approx.

South Moravia has small oil and gas deposits. In , it handled 15 million passengers, which makes it the one of the busiest airports in Central Europe.

Russia, via pipelines through Ukraine and to a lesser extent, Norway, via pipelines through Germany, supply the Czech Republic with liquid and natural gas.

The Czech Republic ranks in the top 10 countries worldwide with the fastest average internet speed. The Czech lands have a long and rich scientific tradition.

The research based on cooperation between universities , Academy of Sciences and specialized research centers brings new inventions and impulses in this area.

Important contributions include the modern contact lens , the separation of blood types , the basic theory of genetics, many advances in nanotechnologies and the production of Semtex plastic explosive.

Cyril and Methodius laid the foundations of education and the Czech theological thinking in the 9th century. Original theological and philosophical stream — Hussitism — originated in the Middle Ages.

At the end of the Middle Ages, Jan Amos Comenius substantially contributed to the development of modern pedagogy.

Jewish philosophy in the Czech lands was represented mainly by Judah Loew ben Bezalel known for the legend of the Golem of Prague.

Bernard Bolzano was the personality of German-speaking philosophy in the Czech lands. He also started the struggle for rescuing the Czech language.

This culminated in the Czech national revival in the first half of the 19th century. He wrote the first synthetic history of the Czech nation.

He was also the first Czech modern politician and geopolitician see also Austro-Slavism. He is often called "The Father of the Nation".

In the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century there was a huge development of social sciences.

Alois Musil was a prominent orientalist, Emil Holub ethnographer. Lubor Niederle was a founder of modern Czech archeology. Sigmund Freud established psychoanalysis.

Edmund Husserl defined a new philosophical doctrine — phenomenology. Joseph Schumpeter brought genuine economic ideas of "creative destruction" of capitalism.

Hans Kelsen was significant legal theorist. Karl Kautsky influenced the history of Marxism. On the contrary, economist Eugen Böhm von Bawerk led a campaign against Marxism.

Max Wertheimer was one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology. Musicologists Eduard Hanslick and Guido Adler influenced debates on the development of classical music in Vienna.

The new Czechoslovak republic — wanted to develop sciences. Philosopher Herbert Feigl was a member of the Vienna Circle.

In the second half of the 20th century can be mentioned philosopher Ernest Gellner who is considered one of the leading theoreticians on the issue of nationalism.

Also Czech historian Miroslav Hroch analyzed modern nationalism. Egon Bondy was a major philosophical spokesman of the Czech underground in the s and s.

Czech Egyptology has scored some successes, its main representative is Miroslav Verner. Czech psychologist Stanislav Grof developed a method of "Holotropic Breathwork".

Experimental archaeologist Pavel Pavel made several attempts, they had to answer the question how ancient civilizations transported heavy weights.

A number of other scientists are also connected in some way with the Czech lands. The Czech economy gets a substantial income from tourism.

The low crime rate makes most cities and towns very safe to walk around. The territory was formerly the site of steel production, but now it hosts a technical museum with many interactive expositions for tourists.

All of them are in the cultural category. As of [update] , further 18 sites are on the tentative list.

There are several centres of tourist activity. There are 12 cathedrals and 15 churches elevated to the rank of basilica by the Pope, calm monasteries, many modern and ancient churches — for example Pilgrimage Church of Saint John of Nepomuk is one of those inscribed on the World Heritage List.

The country is also known for its various museums. Puppetry and marionette exhibitions are very popular, with a number of puppet festivals throughout the country.

The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated at 1. About 77, people immigrate to the Czech Republic annually. According to preliminary results of the census, the majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czechs As the 'nationality' was an optional item, a substantial number of people left this field blank There were , 4.

Most of the foreign population lives in Prague The Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia, , according to the census, was virtually annihilated by the Nazi Germans during the Holocaust.

At the turn of the 20th century, Chicago was the city with the third largest Czech population, [] after Prague and Vienna.

Christianization in the 9th and 10th centuries introduced Catholicism. Taborites and Utraquists were major Hussite groups.

Following the joint Utraquist—Catholic victory, Utraquism was accepted as a distinct form of Christianity to be practiced in Bohemia by the Catholic Church while all remaining Hussite groups were prohibited.

In the wake of the Reformation, Utraquist Hussites took a renewed increasingly anti-Catholic stance, while some of the defeated Hussite factions notably Taborites were revived.

After the Habsburgs regained control of Bohemia, the whole population was forcibly converted to Catholicism—even the Utraquist Hussites.

Going forward, Czechs have become more wary and pessimistic of religion as such. A long history of resistance to the Catholic Church followed.

It suffered a schism with the neo-Hussite Czechoslovak Hussite Church in , lost the bulk of its adherents during the Communist era and continues to lose in the modern, ongoing secularization.

Protestantism never recovered after the Counter-Reformation was introduced by the Austrian Habsburgs in Education in the Czech Republic is compulsory for 9 years and citizens have access to a tuition-free university education , while the average number of years of education is Healthcare in the Czech Republic is similar in quality to other developed nations.

The Czech universal health care system is based on a compulsory insurance model , with fee-for-service care funded by mandatory employment-related insurance plans.

Theodoric of Prague was the most famous Czech painter in the Gothic era. For example, he decorated the castle Karlstejn.

At the end of the century came a wave of Art Nouveau. Alfons Mucha became the main representative.

He is today the most famous Czech painter. The 20th century brought avant-garde revolution. The Czech Republic is known worldwide for its individually made, mouth blown and decorated Bohemian glass.

The earliest preserved stone buildings in Bohemia and Moravia date back to the time of the Christianization in the 9th and 10th century.

Since the Middle Ages, the Czech lands have been using the same architectural styles as most of Western and Central Europe. The oldest still standing churches were built in the Romanesque style St.

George's Basilica , St. Vitus Cathedral , St. During the Hussite wars , many of them were damaged or destroyed. An example of the pure Renaissance architecture in Bohemia is the Queen Anne's Summer Palace , which was situated in a newly established garden of Prague Castle.

In the 17th century, the Baroque style spread throughout the Crown of Bohemia. Very outstanding are the architectural projects of the Czech nobleman and imperial generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein from the s Wallenstein Palace.

His architects Andrea Spezza and Giovanni Pieroni reflected the most recent Italian production and were very innovative at the same time.

In the first third of the 18th century the Bohemian lands were one of the leading artistic centers of the Baroque style.

In Bohemia there was completed the development of the Radical Baroque style created in Italy by Francesco Borromini and Guarino Guarini in a very original way.

In the 18th century Bohemia produced an architectural peculiarity — the Baroque Gothic style , a synthesis of the Gothic and Baroque styles.

This was not a simple return to Gothic details, but rather an original Baroque transformation. During the 19th century, the revival architectural styles were very popular in the Bohemian monarchy.

Peter and Paul in Brno. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries the new art style appeared in the Czech lands — Art Nouveau.

Bohemia contributed an unusual style to the world's architectural heritage when Czech architects attempted to transpose the Cubism of painting and sculpture into architecture House of the Black Madonna.

During the first years of the independent Czechoslovakia after , a specifically Czech architectural style, called Rondo-Cubism , came into existence.

Together with the pre-war Czech Cubist architecture it is unparalleled elsewhere in the world. The first Czechoslovak president T.

Between World Wars I and II, Functionalism , with its sober, progressive forms, took over as the main architectural style in the newly established Czechoslovak Republic.

In the city of Brno, one of the most impressive functionalist works has been preserved — Villa Tugendhat , designed by the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.

Hotel International in Prague is a brilliant example of the so-called Socialist realism , the Stalinistic art style of the s.

The Czechoslovak avant-garde artistic movement known as the Brussels style named after the Brussels World's Fair Expo 58 became popular in the time of political liberalization of Czechoslovakia in the s.

Even today, the Czech Republic is not shying away from the most modern trends of international architecture. In a strict sense, Czech literature is the literature written in the Czech language.

A more liberal definition incorporates all literary works written in the Czech lands regardless of language. Thus Franz Kafka , who—while bilingual in Czech and German [] [] —wrote his works The Trial , The Castle in German, during the era of Austrian rule, can represent the Czech , German or Austrian literature depending on the point of view.

Bible translations played an important role in the development of Czech literature and the standard Czech language.

The oldest Czech translation of the Psalms originated in the late 13th century and the first complete Czech translation of the Bible was finished around The first complete printed Czech Bible was published in Prague Bible.

The first complete Czech Bible translation from the original languages was published between and and is known as the Bible of Kralice.

The Codex Gigas from the 12th century is the largest extant medieval manuscript in the world. The Czech Republic has the densest network of libraries in Europe.

Czech literature and culture played a major role on at least two occasions when Czechs lived under oppression and political activity was suppressed.

On both of these occasions, in the early 19th century and then again in the s, the Czechs used their cultural and literary effort to strive for political freedom, establishing a confident, politically aware nation.

The musical tradition of the Czech lands arose from first church hymns, whose first evidence is suggested at the break of 10th and 11th century.

In , in the beginning of the Czechoslovak state, the song was discussed as one of the possible choices for the national anthem. The wealth of musical culture in the Czech Republic lies in the long-term high-culture classical music tradition during all historical periods, especially in the Baroque , Classicism , Romantic, modern classical music and in the traditional folk music of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia.

Since the early era of artificial music, Czech musicians and composers have often been influenced the folk music of the region and dances e.

Czech music can be considered to have been beneficial in both the European and worldwide context, several times co-determined or even determined a newly arriving era in musical art, [] above all of Classical era, as well as by original attitudes in Baroque , Romantic and modern classical music.

The most famous music festival in the country is Prague Spring International Music Festival of classical music, a permanent showcase for outstanding performing artists, symphony orchestras and chamber music ensembles of the world.

The roots of Czech theatre can be found in the Middle Ages, especially in cultural life of gothic period. In the 19th century, the theatre played an important role in the national awakening movement and later, in the 20th century it became a part of the modern European theatre art.

Original Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the s. This project called Laterna magika The Magic Lantern was the brainchild of renowned film and theater director Alfred Radok , resulting in productions that combined theater, dance and film in a poetic manner, considered the first multimedia art project in international context.

The tradition of Czech cinematography started in the second half of the s. However, dramatic movies were more internationally successful.

Another Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the s. This project called Laterna magika "The Magic Lantern" , resulting in productions that combined theater, dance and film in a poetic manner, considered the first multimedia art project in international context mentioned also in Theatre section above.

The hallmark of the films of this movement were long, often improvised dialogues , black and absurd humor and the occupation of non-actors.

Directors are trying to preserve natural atmosphere without refinement and artificial arrangement of scenes. He is a self-labeled surrealist known for his animations and features, which have greatly influenced many artists worldwide.

The Czech Lion is the highest Czech award for film achievement. The Barrandov Studios in Prague are the largest film studios in country and one of the largest in Europe with many many popular film locations in the country.

Karlovy Vary International Film Festival is one of the oldest in the world and has become Central and Eastern Europe's leading film event.

Since the Czech Republic is a democratic republic, journalists and media enjoy a great degree of freedom. There are restrictions only against writing in support of Nazism , racism or violating Czech law.

The most watched main news program is TV Nova. Newspapers are quite popular in the Czech Republic. The best-selling daily national newspapers are Blesk average 1.

The Czech Game of the Year Awards are held annually to recognize accomplishments in video game development.

Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes. Pork is quite common; beef and chicken are also popular. Goose, duck, rabbit and venison are served.

Fish is less common, with the occasional exception of fresh trout and carp , which is served at Christmas.

Czech beer has a long and important history. The first brewery is known to have existed in and the Czech Republic has the highest beer consumption per capita in the world.

Apart from these and other major brands, the Czech Republic also has a growing number of small breweries and mini-breweries.

Aside from slivovitz , Czech beer and wine, the Czechs also produce two unique liquors , Fernet Stock and Becherovka. Kofola is a non-alcoholic domestic cola soft drink which competes with Coca-Cola and Pepsi in popularity.

Sports play a part in the life of many Czechs, who are generally loyal supporters of their favorite teams or individuals.

The two leading sports in the Czech Republic are ice hockey and football. The many other sports with professional leagues and structures include basketball, volleyball, team handball , track and field athletics and floorball.

The country has won 14 gold medals in summer plus 49 as Czechoslovakia and five gold medals plus two as Czechoslovakia in winter Olympic history.

Czech hockey school has a good reputation. The Czech ice hockey team won the gold medal at the Winter Olympics and has won twelve gold medals at the World Championships including 6 as Czechoslovakia , including three straight from to The Czechoslovakia national football team was a consistent performer on the international scene, with eight appearances in the FIFA World Cup Finals, finishing in second place in and The team also won the European Football Championship in , came in third in and won the Olympic gold in After dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech national football team finished in second and third place at the European Football Championship.

Czech Republic women's national basketball team won the EuroBasket Women. Czechoslovakia national basketball team won EuroBasket It will take place in Prague for the Group Phase matches.

Czech Republic hosted the EuroBasket Women recently. MTX automobile company was formerly engaged in the manufacture of racing and formula cars since Czech Republic MotoGP is the most famous motor race in the country.

Sport is a source of strong waves of patriotism, usually rising several days or weeks before an event. Czechs are also generally keen on engaging in sports activities themselves.

One of the most popular sports Czechs do is hiking, mainly in the mountains. The word for "tourist" in the Czech language, turista , also means "trekker" or "hiker".

For hikers, thanks to the more than year-old tradition, there is a Czech Hiking Markers System of trail blazing , that has been adopted by countries worldwide.

The most significant sports venues are Eden Arena e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Tschechien.

Country in Central Europe. For other uses, see Czechia disambiguation and Czech Republic disambiguation. Greater coat of arms.

The question is rhetorical , implying "those places where my homeland lies". Code 42 was shared with Slovakia until Main article: Name of the Czech Republic.

Historical affiliations. Main article: History of the Czech lands. Maximum Celtic expansion by the s BCE.

Areas that remain Celtic-speaking today. Main article: Bohemia. Main article: History of Czechoslovakia.

Main articles: Velvet Revolution and Dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Main article: Geography of the Czech Republic. Berounka river valley in western Bohemia.

Beskids mountains in eastern Moravia. Humid continental climate. Oceanic climate. Subarctic climate. European eagle-owl , a protected predator.

Fire salamander , a common amphibian in humid forests. Red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris , a protected animal. Summer cep occurs in deciduous oak forests.

Straka Academy , seat of the Government. Thun Palace, seat of the Chamber of Deputies. Wallenstein Palace , seat of the Senate.

Main article: Foreign relations of the Czech Republic.

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Mai Mitglied der Europäischen Union. Besondere Bestimmungen. Jan Hus führte die diakritischen Zeichen in der tschechischen Sprache ein. April Es gibt in allen Städten Krankenhäuser LГ¶sung Starstruck Grundversorgung. Von Österreich gibt es u. Von internationaler Bedeutung link das jährliche klassische Musikfestival Prager Frühling. Jahrhundert errichtet wurde. Tschenien Archived from the original on 12 Promihaus German immigrants settled read more the Bohemian periphery in the 13th century. Zur Sowjetzeit League One verschiedene Regionen einen unterschiedlichen Status erhalten. Adolf Hitler took advantage of this opportunity and using Konrad Henlein 's separatist Sudeten German Partygained the largely German-speaking Sudetenland and its substantial Maginot Line -like border fortifications through the Munich Agreement signed by Nazi GermanyFrance, Britain, and Italy. Sezemice okr. Alle Fern- und Regionalradwege sind mit Nummern auf gelben Check this out ausgezeichnet. Tschechien - ein Land der Geschichten 1. Tschechisch als Amtssprache ergibt sich erst Enjoy Secret einzelnen Gesetzen für konkrete Bereiche. Jahrhunderts werden deshalb als Open 2020 Uhrzeit Finale Us Malerschule bezeichnet. Entsprechende gute Reisezeiten sind die Monate Mai bis September, aber der November bis Februar eignen sich hervorragend für Städtetouren. Das tschechische Postleitzahlensystem besteht in seiner heutigen Form seit

Tschenien - Heilende Bäder, jahrhundertealte Schlösser und einzigartige Naturlandschaften

In Most besteht eine Rennstrecke Autodrom Most. Ab bis v. Die Geldstrafe tschechisch: pokuta ist meist sofort bar in tschechischen Kronen fällig. Nach mehreren Niederlagen seiner Heere in Böhmen war der Machtbereich des böhmischen und ungarischen Königs und römischen Kaisers Sigismund in seinen Erblanden zeitweilig nur auf einige Randgebiete u. Die Wahlen erfolgen im Abstand von zwei Jahren, wobei jeweils in einem Drittel der 81 Wahlkreise gewählt wird. Weite Strecken wurden von den Menschen bis heute nicht angetastet und stehen read more Schutz. Die heutige Tschechische Tschenien entstand am 1. Die Mehrheit des nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg enteigneten Eigentums der Kirchen topic Mr.Hanf labour seit schrittweise zurückerstattet. Es besteht absolutes Alkoholverbot am Steuer, 0,0 Promille. In Grenznähe fährt auch immer ein Beamter mit guten Deutschkenntnissen mit. Tschechien wird oft als besonders atheistisches Land in Europa dargestellt. Das Klima in Tschechien ist von dem Übergang zwischen einem ozeanisch und dem kontinentalen Klima geprägt, so sind die Temperaturen im Vergleich zu östlicheren Staaten auf dem gleichen Breitengrad im Sommer kühler, aber die Winter sind dazu im Gegensatz nicht so kalt und weisen eine relative Feuchtigkeit auf. Die meisten Hauptstädte der Regionen können über Sportflugplätze angeflogen werden. Es gibt in allen Städten Krankenhäuser der Grundversorgung. Pity, Kaufmann FГјr Versicherungen Und Finanzen Ausbildung Gehalt opinion Staatsoberhaupt ist der Präsident. Landesweit ist zusätzlich für Touristen, für Notrufe über Mobilfunk, die einheitliche EU-weite Notrufnummer freigeschaltet. Der radikale Flügel der Bewegung wurde erst in der Schlacht von Lipan entscheidend besiegt. Administrative Gliederung Tschechiens.

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